Citations

  1. Citations Machine
  2. Citations
  3. Citations Apa
  4. Citation Generator

In-text citations are required when you use someone else's ideas, theories or research in your paper.

  • MyBib creates accurate citations automatically for books, journals, websites, and videos just by searching for a title or identifier (such as a URL or ISBN). Plus, we're using the same citation formatting engine as professional-grade reference managers such as Zotero and Mendeley, so you can be sure our bibliographies are perfectly accurate in.
  • Creating citations in Chicago style has never been easier thanks to our extensive Citation Machine® Chicago style guide and tools. Learn about footnotes, endnotes, and everything in between, or easily create citations for websites, books, journal articles, and more!

In-text citations are citations within the main body of the text and refer to a direct quote or paraphrase. In-text citations: Correspond to a reference in the main reference list. They contain the first word of the reference, which is usually the author’s surname, and the page, or page-range in which the reference is found. Please use the area on the right to pay your citation online.

Quick Guide

Examples: (choose depending if author and/or date is mentioned in text)

Citations Machine

Quotation:

Should Should = zou moeten (je stelt iets voor: 'You should eat more'.) Must = moeten (het is dwingend: 'You must eat more'.) Wil je deze woorden ontkennend maken.

  • 'The bones were very fragile' (Cole, 2019, p. 13).
  • Cole (2019) found that 'The bones were very fragile' (p. 33).
  • In 2019, Cole found that 'The bones were very fragile' (p. 33).

Paraphrase:

  • The bones broke easily because they were porous (Cole, 2011).
  • Cole (2011) discovered that the bones broke easily.
  • In 2011, Cole found that the bones were easily broken (p. 33).

Note: APA style encourages the inclusion of page numbers for paraphrases, but it is not mandatory. Include page or paragraph numbers if it will help reader find the information.

Authors

No authors: Use the title in place of author. Shorten title if needed. Use double quotation marks for title of an article, a chapter, or a web page. Use italics for title of a periodical, a book, a brochure or a report.

  • the observations found ('Arctic Voyage,' 2014)
  • the book Vitamin Discoveries (2013)

Two authors: Within the text use the word and. If the authors' names are within parentheses use the & symbol.

  • Cole and Dough (1998) argued ..
  • ..if they were left to their own devices.(Cole & Dough, 1998)

Three or more authors: Include only the last name of the first author followed by 'et al.'

(Wasserstein et al., 2017)

Groups

Spell out the name in full the first time and abbreviate subsequent times only if abbreviation is well known.

  • First time: American Psychological Association (2020) explained..
  • Second time: APA (2020) proved ..

Quotations

When quoting always provide author, year and specific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated material.

If the quotation is less than 40 words incorporate it into the text and enclose the quotation with quotation marks. Cite the source immediately after the close of the quotation marks.

If the authors are named in the text, they do not have to be used in the citation.

In fact, 'a neurosis is characterized by anxiety' (Kristen & Warb, 2012, p. 157).

'A neurosis is characterized by anxiety,' according to Kristen and Warb's (2012, p. 157) longitudinal study.

If the quotation is over 40 words, you must indent the entire quotation and start the quotation on a new line. No quotation marks are required. Cite the quoted source after the final punctuation mark.

Citations

Alberta is occasionally divided into two regions, Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. The majority of Alberta's population is located in large urban cities, mostly located in the South. Alberta is Canada's most populous province of all three Canadian Prairie provinces. Edmonton is the Capital of Alberta. (Hern, 1996, p. 22)

Paraphrasing

APA style encourages the inclusion of page numbers, but it is not mandatory. Include page or paragraph numbers if it will help reader find the information.

  • (Reiton, 2003, para. 3)

Citations

If the document does not contain page numbers, include paragraph numbers.

Citations Apa

  • (Reiton, 2003, para. 3).

If neither is available omit page and paragraph numbers. Do not count paragraph numbers.

Citation Generator

When paraphrasing from multiple sources, include all authors name in parentheses in alphabetical order.

  • (Cole, 2006; Mann & Arthur, 2011; Zigmung, 2000).